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Real-time tsunami monitoring and warning systems alert the people C. Public education population awareness and community response Intensive workshops to develop each component have been held with broad-based participation that included tsunami scientists, Federal, State, and local emergency planners and emergency operators.

Workshop participants focussed on evaluation of new hazard assessment and mitigation technology. NOAA technical reports were published on each workshop. This document summarizes and synthesizes these workshop recommendations into a coherent plan. The Problem U.

Local tsunamis give residents only a few minutes to seek safety. Tsunamis of distant origins give residents more time to evacuate threatened coastal areas but increase the need for timely and accurate assessment of the tsunami hazard to avoid costly false alarms.

Thus, U. Similarly, west coast residents can experience a local tsunami that may also have an impact on the distant states of Alaska and Hawaii. Of the two, local tsunamis are more devastating. The challenge is to design a tsunami hazard mitigation program to protect life and property from two very different types of tsunami events. Tsunami hazard for the United States is defined by the earthquake zones capable of generating tsunamis in the Alaska-Aleutian Seismic zone, the Cascadia Subduction Zone, and Hawaii.

The populations at risk from tsunami are identified as population centers. Coast The Cascadia Subduction Zone threatens California, Oregon, and Washington with devastating local tsunamis Figure 1 that could strike the coast within minutes. There is increasing geological and seismological evidence that: earthquakes of Richter scale magnitude 8 and more have previously occurred in this region; at least one segment of the subduction zone may be approaching the end of a seismic cycle culminating in such an earthquake; and, these earthquakes have generated tsunamis that have caused extensive flooding along the coastlines of Washington, Oregon, and California Heaton and Hartzell, ; Weaver and Shedlock, Recent articles Waethrich, indicate that the probability of a Cascadia earthquake occurring is comparable to that of large earthquakes in southern California i.

Respected U. A reminder of this threat occurred in April when a small tsunami was generated at the southern end of the Cascadia Subduction Zone by a large 7. This tsunami arrived at Eureka, California only 15 minutes after the earthquake origin time.

No tsunami warning was issued because the instruments used to determine earthquake magnitude were outdated. FEM also funded an earthquake scenario study of Northern California. The combined study Eureka, California Homes shifted from foundations, partial collapse of masonary buildings, heavy furniture and major appliances overturned.

Figure 2. This map identifies areas of tsunami flooding, areas of liquefaction, landslides, and intense ground shaking. If the tsunami is generated by a local, major earthquake near Eureka, then highway probably will be damaged by the liquefied soils to the south.

Evacuation then would be feasible only to the north on highway It is important to evacuate to safe areas. The first-of-a-kind map is illustrated in Figure 2, which clearly shows areas susceptible to tsunami flooding, earthquake shaking intensity, earthquake-induced liquefaction, and earthquake-triggered landslides.

The Eureka tsunami study can be considered the prototype and model for the application of existing technology to local tsunami hazard assessment. These local tsunami hazard maps will be incorporated into the emergency plans of Eureka, California.

This process, which starts in March , will provide an opportunity for NOAA, FEMA, the State of California, and local Eureka emergency planners to set the standard for emergency procedures for other coastal communities threatened by local tsunamis.

If an earthquake in Alaska generated a major tsunami, Alaskan shores would be flooded within 15 minutes, while the coasts of Hawaii, Washington, Oregon, and California would be hit within 5 hours after the event. It then would take about an hour for the Centers to receive conflation from Alaskan coastal tide gauges that a major tsunami had been generated.

Even at this time, the Centers would have only a rough idea of the potential size of the tsunami. They would receive no further information until the tsunami reached Midway Island about 3 hours after the earthquake or the west coast of the United States 4 to 5 hours after the earthquake.

At that point, it would be too late for Washington and Oregon emergency managers to change their plans of operation, and Hawaii emergency managers would have only about an hour and a half to adjust their plans. Recently, the development of a method to detect, in real time, the passage of a tsunami in the open ocean could provide additional lead time to evacuate coastal residents. These maps were derived from tsunami inundation models and are published in local telephone directories.

Once a warning is received in Hawaii, residents are evacuated from potential tsunami inundation areas. The other affected states have no similar maps. Lack of evacuation maps and timely tsunami wave information gives rise to confusion on how to respond to a NOAA tsunami warning.

Lack of evacuation maps and timely tsunami wave information certainly contributed to the confusion caused by the October 4, distant tsunami warning. See the Tsunami Education Workshop report Good et al. Conclusions Local tsunamis are the greatest threat to U. Technologies now exist to identify areas at risk from both types of tsunamis and to detect the passage of a tsunami in the deep ocean in real time.

Pacific Ocean coastlines. To mitigate any rapid onset natural disaster, it is critical to accurately assess the nature of the hazard, design an alerting technique, and prepare the at-risk area for appropriate reaction to reduce the impact of the hazard.

Applying the conceptual model—hazard assessment, warning, and educated response—to the tsunami hazard is a way to reduce the inevitable impact of tsunamis. One way to think about the application of this model to the tsunami hazard is illustrated in Figure 3. The three interdependent pieces of the conceptual model are shown as a triangle. Hazard Assessment Figure 3. Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Model.

NOAA conducted the first comprehensive evaluation of existing tsunami hazard mitigation technology and user needs through a series of three workshops hazard assessment, warning, educated response held from November to October For details about the workshops see Appendix A. The process of involving Federal, State, and local representatives yielded a rich diversity of ideas and suggestions. The main theme that emerged was that the hazard affects local populations, so the solutions should be developed with input from these people.

Below is a summary of the major findings and recommendations from each workshop. At the State and local level, emergency planning and operations are involved as well as universities. Tsunami Hazard Assessment The base of the triangle in Figure 3 and the first element for designing appropriate warning and education systems is hazard assessment.

For each coastal community, an assessment of the tsunami hazard must be carried out to identify at-risk populations and areas. For some communities, data from earlier tsunamis provide an empirical method for identifying hazardous areas. For most communities, however, little or no data exist.

For these areas, tsunami inundation numerical models can provide estimates of areas that could be flooded in the event of a local or distant earthquake. The accuracy of this technology is appropriate to design the other two elements of the model—waning and educated response systems. Participants were of the strong opinion that the production of these maps should be guided by local experts who had detailed knowledge of that geographical area.

The participants also wanted these maps to be as accurate as possible, so they felt that the models should be tested and validated with observed data. Major Finding:. Technology exists to produce tsunami inundation maps for emergency preparedness. Major Recommendations: 1. Establish a group of scientists to produce tsunami inundation maps for coastal towns in Alaska, Hazard Assessment California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. Tsunami inundation map production should be guided and implemented by State and local users.

Test and validate models with observed data. Tsunami Warning The second element of the conceptual model Figure 3 is the appropriate warning system to alert coastal communities that danger is imminent. Three types of tsunami warning systems exist to alert populations of the occurrence of an earthquake that has high potential to generate a tsunami.

Three warning systems exist today. All three systems use earthquake magnitude as the trigger for warnings and use coastal tide stations as verification that a tsunami exists and as a guide to announce that the danger has passed. Because these systems are activated by earthquake magnitudes, and because not all earthquakes generate tsunamis, there are false alarms.

In the tsunami hazard mitigation model, warning systems are designed according to the local hazard assessment. For the U. The tsunami warning system for the U. The participants of the workshop found that this extensive network could be utilized, with some modifications, to provide tsunami warnings within five minutes for any earthquake occurring along U.

Participants felt that making better use of existing networks was preferred over the siting of a new tsunami warning center. If their recommendations are implemented, there is no need to create another traditional tsunami warning center on the West Coast. They also found that the existing water level network of 12 real-time tide gauges in Alaska and Hawaii was inadequate to detect local tsunamis for forecasting local tsunami impacts.

Participants recommended the modification of coastal gauges to detect large tsunamis. They recognized that the new technology to detect tsunamis near the source offers an improved approach to early detection and forecasting of tsunamis. With this realization, they recommended the installation of deep water tsunami gauges and the use of the resulting data for forecasting tsunami wave heights. Major Findings:. Technology exists to issue local tsunami warnings within five minutes for earthquakes occurring along U.

Major Recommendations: 4. Upgrade existing seismic networks to include real-time instruments that provide more accurate earthquake magnitudes. Implement a plan to coordinate the exchange of data among existing seismic networks. Install network of deep water tsunami gauges and modify existing coastal network to survive large tsunamis. Develop procedures that incorporate water level data for forecasting local tsunami impacts. The appropriate response to impending danger from a tsunami requires knowledge of areas that could be flooded tsunami inundation maps and knowledge of the warning system to know when to evacuate and when it is safe to return.

Without both pieces of information the response could be inappropriate and fail to mitigate the impact of the tsunami Our third workshop found that the residents of Oregon, Washington, and California were unaware of hazard assessment and warning procedures.

Workshop participants recommended the formation of an educational network to exchange existing information and keep abreast of new educational material being developed. Participants, recognizing that lack of tsunami inundation maps was a major obstacle in education of local residents, recommended the production of tsunami inundation maps as soon as possible. Workshop participants were concerned that each state may create different signs for guiding people out of Optical Character Recognition OCR document.

Participants recommended that each state establish a tsunami advisor to provide expert guidance to the media, decision makers, and emergency planners. A summary of this workshop can be found in the tsunami education workshop report Good et al. Major Recommendations: 9.

Establish an educational network among local, State, and Federal agencies to promote communication and coordinate the exchange of existing and new information and assist in improving tsunami warning messages. Produce preliminary tsunami inundation maps to aid in local educational process. Develop standardized tsunami hazard zone and evacuation signs for use in Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.

The Plan By combining the three elements—hazard assessment, warnings, and response—we have a context for implementing the workshop recommendations. A schematic summary of the plan is illustrated in Figure 4. The tsunami hazard mitigation plan Figure 3 uses hazard assessment to design appropriate warning systems and appropriate response by affected populations to reduce the impact of the tsunami.

These three components must be highly interactive and well coordinated to mitigate the effects of a tsunami. Thus, a coordinating body of appropriate scientists, emergency managers, emergency planners, and warning center operators, with representations from each affected state, should be created to ensure this coordination.

Coordination 2. Planning 3. Implementation The coordination phase is essential to form a coherent plan of action with time milestones. The three workshops provide a technical basis for identifying techniques and needs, but they represent only the first step in coordination.

Each state should have a representative that could become the expert for that state Recommendation Through this process, a plan can evolve in which the Federal role to protect life and property is appropriately applied at the local level. The plan should outline what recommendations can be implemented at various resource levels. These two facts force us to use our existing resources as wisely and productively as possible. The planning phase should emerge as soon as possible.

The present document contains 12 recommendations that could be the essential elements of the plan. Coordination is required to establish a process to rank the recommendations. Once the ranking of recommendations is agreed upon, then the implementation phase can begin. The process of implementation will be controlled by resources available from all sources—the Federal sector, the State sector, and the private sector. Conclusions The three workshops on tsunami hazard assessment, warning guidance, and educated response have provided a set of recommendations that can reduce the impact of local tsunamis on West Coast residents.

The recommendations do not call for the siting of a new warning center, but rather the use of existing seismic networks through focused upgrades of instrumentation, telemetry, and processing. The recommendations provide for inundation mapping for all Pacific coastal communities through a process that involves local governments, including affected coastal residents. Behn, G. Hebenstreit, F. Gonzalez, P. Krumpe, J. Lander, E. Lorca, P. McManamon, and H.

Eos Trans. AGU, 69 24 , Bernard, E. Mader, G. Curtis, and K. NOAA Tech. Blackford, M. Bernard : The Cape Mendocino tsunami. Earthquakes and Volcanoes, 23, — Good et al. Heaton, T. Hartzell : Earthquake hazards on the Cascadia Subduction Zone. Science, , — Nishenko, S. Toppozada, T. Borchardt, W. Haydon, and M. Waethrich, B. Weaver, C. Shedlock : Estimates of seismic source regions from consideration of the earthquake distribution and regional tectonics in the Pacific Northwest, U.

This collection of data has been helpful in verifying and refining numerical generation and run-up models with the purpose of mitigating the loss of life and associated property damage from future tsunami events. The period of time immediately following a destructive tsunami can be an agonizing ordeal for local communities and their citizens.

People have been killed or lost, buildings and homes are damaged, transportation and lifeline infrastructures may be wiped out and people are in a state of shock, Clearly the first order of business for any country and affected community following a tsunami is a period or grieving and rehabilitation. Recognizing these important human needs, post-disaster tsunami surveys must be conducted with sensitivity to these cultural requirements and with complete coordination with the host country.

A tsunami monitoring program must be organized in advance to plan for the post-tsunami measurements. Water level measuring devices to detect and measure the presence of substantial water on land beyond the normal limits must be in place, and observers in target locations must be trained to note and preserve the effects before their disappearance, in all regions susceptible to tsunami attack.

PROCEDURE: Establish standards for observations, measurements, and assessments on how to properly collect the data in a timely manner, and decide on the data to be collected. Develop guidelines for the conduct of the field investigation so as to enable the consistency of these data Set procedures to organize survey teams, and dispatch them quickly and effectively, that is, almost immediately following the tsunami. Identify the needs to facilitate such surveys.

Identify simple and efficient field survey equipment. Establish policies to manage and distribute post- tsunami survey data. This Field Guide should be simple-easy to carry, read and understand, be translated into the languages of potentially affected countries, and be periodically updated. A prototype interview format, translated also into the local languages, must be included in the Guide.

Appendix I contains components for a post-tsunami eyewitness interview, as recommended by Y. Tsuji and V. Before the Field Survey Selectivity Develop a criteria to judge on a case by case basis, which tsunamis have the merits based on preliminary information of the severity or accountable size of their effects, or the new scientific knowledge that might be learned, or the accessibility of the affected area, or availability of enough field personnel and funding to qualify for a survey of an international team of experts.

Define who is going to make the decision on the above. Voluntary contributions from other national sources governmental or private such as the SGER program of the U. National Science. Foundation or international agencies are welcomed, and should be identified as soon as possible so that surveyors are prepared to act quickly in seeking such funding immediately after tsunami events.

Funding from the IOC should in particular be made available to enable participation of scientists without direct access to funding in their own countries, as well as to ensure that the necessary expertise be represented in any survey. Funds should also be made available for training scientists and students from countries vulnerable to tsunami attack, both in field survey techniques and in principles of hazard mitigation.

Make-up of the Survey Teams: Multidisciplinary composition specialists in oceanography, engineering, land surveying seismology, geology, soil liquefaction, sedimentology, sociology, urban planning public healh, and community leaders. From a previously made list of potential field survey personnel, indicating their field of expertise, previous experience, special skills, and time of the year when they are available, a selection of interested and capable persons, according to the specific needs of each case, should be made.

Team members in target locations must be trained to note and preserve the effects before their disappearance, in all regions susceptible to tsunami attack. Training sessions may be needed. The participation of more experts can be enhanced by a blanket call to all Tsunami Bulletin Board TBB members at the time of each event. ITIC should enhance and maintain current the list of scientists and use the TBB to develop and disseminate this information. Basic training for the team to help in disaster relief efforts, first aid, communications, and public education, may be needed; although it should be stressed that these activities are not the main purpose of the field survey.

It is highly desirable that at least one of the team members represents the affected country and speaks the local language of the survey area. A limit on the size of the team, based on the availability of funds and the efficiency in operating under the difficult conditions of the affected area, should be set. Who is going to make the selection of the members of the team, needs to be defined. Agreements should be reached in advance on the procedures for the admission of the teams and custom clearance of the survey equipment and sediment samples, as well as other logistical matters.

Local authorities should not be overwhelmed with requests of visas, invitations, databases or repents at a rather inopportune time. International agreements should be arranged now between or among different countries to enable the rapid issuance of visas and invitation letters as necessary, in case of an event occurrence.

Communication and Coordination: A national authority of the country to be surveyed i. Establish also the necessary links with the academic and operational cmmunity of the affected nations, who will be involved in the surveys, to help recruit local members for the team, and agree on how the information to be obtained will be shared, eventually the development of joint research activities.

The electronic Tsunami Bulletin Board may be useful for this purpose. Those participating international experts must work hand-in-hand with the local survey experts. Determine also the communication and logistical support needed from local sources, like: photocopiers, FAX and telephone lines, Internet accessibility, modems, cellular telephones, etc.

Select a common meeting site adjacent to the stricken area Coordinate with other groups who are performing similar surveys in the same place, so as to minimize or eliminate duplication of efforts and to share the information. This coordination should not be aimed at excluding any individual from the effort, but rather at maximizing the effectiveness of surveys while remaining sensitive to local communities and cultures.

Instrumentation: Identify types of instruments that might be permanently available for the infrequent occurrence of tsunamis, specifically sea-water level gauges and current meters, their adaptation to tsunami measurement digital sampling rates and record lengths i. Consider their survivability in the tsunami source and arrival regions. Simple and reliable water level measuring devices to detect and measure the presence of substantial water on land beyond the normal limits must be in place.

In advance to the survey, identify the existing instruments in the site, and collect their information. Survey Equipment, Baggage. This equipment should be listed and described in the Field Guide, and periodically updated. Identify and select the most suitable, portable, and easily accessible instruments for the parameters to be measured.

Sources where to buy, rent, barrow, or get them through inter-institutional cooperation. Eventually, stock pile basic equipment or at least, have a computerized list of what and where to get it in storage at some facility. Hand pushable piston cores to take sediment samples, and a shovel to dig.

A digital survey fathometer coupled to a GPS maybe needed. Do not forget the Tsunami Survey Field Guide. Consider the use of photographic, audio, or video recorders, and carry enough rolls of film, cassettes, tapes and battery supplies. For remote locations, portable seismographs may provide valuable aftershock data- Include portable light weight energy sources i.

Flashlights with extra batteries and lamps, matches in waterproof containers. A portable radio, portable laptop computers, papers, pens, portable telephones, clipboard, pocket knife, and waterproof packaging for documents should be carried. Appropriate clothing, hat, and shoes or boots for the climate and season of the year.

Archives of maps bathymetry and topography at a scale of , or finer , aerial photos, tidal gauge locations, and tide tables or computer tide programs to correct runup measurements for areas of high vulnerability to tsunami attack, should be assembled and maintained Enlarge the maps by photocopying before embarking, to aid field note taking. In addition, lists of organization names, contact names and addresses of sources for these materials for all tsunami-prone areas of the world, including the Pacific, the Atlantic, and the Mediterranean, should be maintained.

If such materials are not presently available for relevant areas, efforts to establish databases should be undertaken as soon as possible. Include this list in the Guide. Credit cards and foreign currency if you survey outside your country are also a need. Education, Training, and Information: Local scientists in particular have the opportunity for quick-response surveys, before valuable field data may be lost.

So, it is important to provide opportunities, means or ways to transfer and disseminate survey technology, standards, and procedures, through training, to as many as possible potential field survey personnel like: scientists, engineers, government officials, and planners from tsunami-prone countries expected to be affected by local or remote source generated tsunamis , so as to become as a common practice for them.

The team should spend a day in training before breaking up into field parties. For all kinds of measurements, the field surveyors must know how to evaluate and report on the quality of the collected data. Use of a Log-book as part of or attached to the Field Guide, with outline and diagrams of basic procedures and techniques, checklist and examples of data to be collected, forms to record the data in a way that can be archived and retrieved in a standard fashion during post-processing and free space for sketches and additional notes and comments on unusual observations.

Guidelines can be provided in form of a list or a questionnaire. A glossary of terms would be useful. A prototype interview format translated into the local language should be used to conduct interviews see Appendix I. Site Selection: Select specific sites, like small bays, stretches of open coast, estuaries, beaches, history of all the tsunami effects, trying to obtain sets of coherent stand-alone measured.

Impossible, capture a broad overview of the area with photographs. Parameters: to document a complete case data of the parameters to be Identification of a set of parameters simple and fast to measure or estimate, so as to make them easily comparable and valid for subsequent surveys and research applications. Various measurements should be coupled to enhance their usefulness. Absolute map locations are preferred as GPS positions may not plot accurately due to signal errors or datum irregularities.

Runup definition and Reference Datum for runup: agree on a single definition and a unique reference level i. Runups heights measured relative to the local tide level shoreline elevation at the place and time of each particular measurement should be corrected to the common Reference Datum selected. For the above mentioned correction, it is essential that all hand watches used by the surveying personnel should be synchronized and set to a standard time signal, and each runup measurement time be recorded.

Find out if standard or daylight savings time was locally used at the time of the tsunami occurrence, during the survey, in the local tide gauge records, and tide tables. Get the nearest tidal gauge records available for the site. Be aware that a proper correction to a common Reference Datum and a standard time is a critical and important issue for further interpretation of the data.

At least, at each site, the maximum runup and the maximum water level which may in some cases be the same measurement , as defined below, should be measured. The two kinds of data should either be plotted on separate diagrams or be distinguished by different symbols. Recommended definitions for these two rnagnitudes are as follows: 1. As many measurements as possible should be made of runup and water level, with precise locations of measurements plotted on maps or air photos optionally also locate by GPS , and preferably with sketches of the measurements, as well as photos.

Locate existing benchmarks in the area and use them as reference to check datum and measurements. Obtain GPS corrected vertical positions of the benchmarks to detect possible land uplifting or subsidence due to the earthquake. Use of GPS as compared to Traditional Techniques: Use of the Global Positioning System GPS technology may help in more timely and efficient collection or of of tsunami runup data following destructive tsunami events, and to identify land subsidence or uplifting due to the earthquake.

Where traditional surveying techniques using measuring tapes, parallax distance finders and bubble levels produce satisfactory results, they are not necessarily the most efficient in time and manpower. Traditional techniques are, however, relatively inexpensive. While GPS technology has shown dramatic improvements in accuracy and cost, the equipment remains relatively expensive for the high accuracy systems.

Equipment requirements are modest. Recording keeping, a running log of measurements, and personnel at least 3 are the most demanding aspects of traditional survey techniques. GPS equipment has basically automated the measurement and record keeping aspects of surveying.

Unfortunately, to obtain the same level of accuracy requires fairly sophisticated equipment that is easy to use with appropriate training but still expensive. Currently good enlarged maps and air photos are more accurate for plotting position locations than the most easily available GPS technology, particularly for vertical measurements. Four price points and hence four levels of accuracy in equipment are available. A single hand-held unit by itself provides the position.

Meter accuracy equipment, about 1 meter in the horizontal and about 3 meters in the vertical, are the next two price points. Data logging capability included. A base-station GPS receiver, separate from the hand-held or back pack receiver, is required to obtain GPS corrections used in obtaining and maintaining the high level or - accuracy needed for this price-point and better.

Survey equipment in the submeter accuracy range provides horizontal control of 10 cm or less and vertical accuracy better than 0. Data logging capability included Base-station GPS receiver required 4, Geodetic equipment, in the millimeter range, is cumbersome and even more expensive and not appropriate for this application.

Mobilization Traditional survey equipment is easily mobilized for field work Transportation is generally not a problem to the survey site. GPS equipment is, even with the more accurate systems, not particularly cumbersome. Since it is sophisticated electronic equipment, there may be hassles clearing foreign country customs without some local, on- site help. Once in the field, the equipment is ready to operate; most are powered by rechargeable batteries that are recharged overnight.

So, power is required to maintain and operate the equipment for day-to-day operations, Markings: To help identify maximum horizontal and vertical runup. Notice if upper, middle or lower parts of houses windows, roofs, etc. Be able to distinguish real run up marks from splashes and from damage marks produced by high floating objects or debris.

Always draw sketches if it is possible. Trees broken, bent, uprooted, or overturned Vegetation destroyed and transported. Debris transported and deposited inland. Its type, size boulders, rocks, driftwood, sand, etc. Overtopping of coastal structures and destruction of existing tide stations maybe an indicator, too. Horizontal Flooding: As conventional definition, inundation is the maximum horizontal penetration of the tsunami from the shoreline. Determine this maximum intrusion inshore from MLLW line or other reference line.

Estimation of magnitudes through their effects drag, inertia on fixed sizable objects and structures, and in floating objects boats, ships carried inland. Measure grain size and density of the sediments being transported. GPS vertical positioning of existing benchmarks, as mentioned before, may be useful. Submerged vegetation or presence of green leafy plants growing in the inter tidal zone, or uplifted barnacles, may be also an indicator of subsidence or uplifting, as well as changes in the level of high tides reaches after the tsunami.

Presence of cracks, liquefaction, tilting or warping in the ground should be noticed and documented. Evidences of fault creep and direction of the motion. Take vertical core samples with plastic tubes on lines perpendicular to the shoreline, across the surfaces of transport and deposition, till the reach of maximum incursion. Dig trenches and photograph the sediments. Measure the thickness and horizontal extent of the sand layer deposits, and their vertical distribution of grain sizes inside them use settling tube analysis for fine resolution in a range of 1.

Identify the areas of eventual erosion, motion and settlement of the sediments by the tsunami waves, but distinguish between beach erosion caused by the tsunami itself from long-term ones appeal to eyewitnesses. Identify the presence and eventual influence of landslides of earth or ice in water bodies, in the generation of the tsunami.

To save time, do the profiles in conjunction with other field observations. Bathymetry: With the help of a fathometer coupled to a GPS or to UHF radio links for positioning perform a survey of the near-shore bottom of those coastal areas not covered with enough resolution by the available charts, or where substantial changes due to sediment transport by the tsunami may have taken place. A small boat or vessel will be needed. Timing and Other Characteristics, through Eyewitness Interviews: Interviews can be invaluable in helping distinguish actual effects of the events earthquake, tsunami from pre- event conditions and post-event changes Like damage clean-up.

Whenever possible, interviews should be conducted by local representatives, as interviewers should be sensitive to the emotional condition and cultural practices of interviewees. Obviously, a native-language speaker will facilitate the process. Non-technical language should be used, and leading questions i. Document through eyewitness interview, measurement of instruments, or local press reports, the times of arrival and periods of the tsunami waves, their number, time of tsunami arrival after earthquake shaking, and the total Optical Character Recognition OCR document.

Did the water recede before the arrival of the first wave or not? Were the waves of a bore type or not? What was the approach direction of the incoming waves? Be aware of eyewitness interviews, which may vary significantly in reliability.

Document the eventual propagation of tsunami bores upstream in estuaries. Detect or identify the influence of any local basin resonance amplifying the tsunami response, and the influence of existing islands, offshore rock formations, or other local bathymetric features present in the continental shelf. Consider the width of the continental shelf.

Notice any influence of local topographic geometry in the runup patterns, and damping due to bottom fiction. Make an attempt to describe qualitatively or quantitatively the tsunami waves behavior in the beaches, harbors, etc. Audio-Visual and Non-Traditional Survey Methods: Photos, video, and audio should be considered, but only to augment and not to replace field note taking Photogrammetry, aerial videos, side scan bottom profilers to assess sea bottom ground deformation, and other methods, should be considered if there is a need, and a financial support.

The dimensions of local reference points e. Collect additional information from local newspapers, radio, and TV reports, and other local sources. Damage Assessment: Rough non specialized classification; estimate of nature and category of the damage, and to what apparent cause is due: a primary agents: hydrostatic pressure, buoyancy or hydrodynamic surge, drag or b secondary impact by debris or driftwood, fires from electrical vaults or oil ignition, explosions, contamination from hazardous materials or toxic fume releases, lack of ground support by scouring torrent of receding waters, etc.

Overtopping of breakwaters, decks, or other coastal structures. Sand erosion or deposition in beaches. Distinguish earthquake from tsunami damage. Ancillary Auxiliary Data and Background Information: Early availability of good resolution bathymetry, coastal topography scale , or less including coastal configuration, geological maps, and seismotectonic information name and strike or slip type of existing main and subsidiary faults, their location, total length and eventual portion ruptured , to help define source region and mechanisms for early model simulation that may identify most probably affected areas and locations for the survey teams to visit.

Availability and use of aerial photographs and satellite images to help locate affected areas to be surveyed. Social Impact: Rough estimate towards gaining an overview of the impact of the tsunami on: human behavior, public services, communication lifelines roads, rail lines, airport runways, utilities, etc. Note changes in the water quality due to the tsunami, and possible resulting diseases. Reasons for lives lost: inadequate warning? Make general recommendations.

If needed, get involved in seminars or short lectures for community leaders, government officials, and the general public, on tsunami risk, simple mitigation measures, preparedness, and response issues. Take brochures about tsunamis to hand out. Show sensitivity to local needs, culture, and customs. Computer Modeling: Type and quality of data to be collected during the survey for modeling requirements.

Purpose and time frame of the simulation: a to help determine runup and inundated areas in almost real time to improve the early warnings, orb for future better understanding of the phenomena in general, or of any particular event, or c to do risk mapping for preparedness planning. Ultimately, what to be used for? Consider the simulation of specifically unusual cases, like tsunamis generated by landslides. These are also issues for next Section: 3. Participants in the surveys are expected to voluntarily, upon request, contribute with brief reports for the Tsunami Newsletter edited by the ITIC.

Comprehensive reports may be required by sponsoring institutions or for presentation at international meetings and symposiums. Brief reports submitted on the electronic Bulletin Board can be helpful for other members of the tsunami community, and should be posted as soon as practical after the return of the survey teams. Gathering, Processing, Sharing and Distribution of Post-Tsunami Data: Adopt as a policy to share the information for the benefit of all parties broad dissemination and accessible storage are the key issues.

Funding should be requested to establish new or expand the present tsunami repositories. Examples of data to be managed: a bibliographic, b marigrams, c tables, d charts and graphics, e photos and videos, f audios. Photographs, charts and other forms of visual data should specifically be posted on World Wide Web sites, The WWW can also be used effectively to point to data repositories.

WWW sites should be further developed with funding made available for such development , with attention to levels of interest and access, from general public to community planners to scientists. Whereas some potentially affected countries or parts thereof do not have broad access to these new electronic superhighway technologies, concise written reports should also be made available.

Also, obviously, a native- language speaker will facilitate the process. Interviewers should also be aware of certain pitfalls in collecting eyewitness data. For example, interviewees should be asked to indicate physical location of water levels, rather than to state numerical elevations of water.

Collect various possible place names town, village, colony, topographic , as these may vary from person to person, and may differ from maps; locate information on maps or air photos GPS only if map not available.

Where was interviewee: 1 before, 2 during and 3 after the event s? Distinguish earthquake, tsunami waves, etc. What was the magnitude of the earthquake, as determined from the Mercalli scale--include MMI Table translated into native language. If earthquake occurred during night, how many people were awake or awakened? Distinguish main shock from possible fore- or aftershocks.

Identify casualties and damage from earthquake s include damage report form? Eyewitness accounts of liquefaction or sand blows? Cracks in ground? Landslides, rock falls, etc. Did well water become muddy? Change level? Were any precursors to earthquake noticed? What w-as the situation before the tsunami? Arrival time of wave s?

Nature of first wave arrival? How many times did water rise how many waves were there? How much time between waves? What was the relative size of waves which was largest, etc. What did the wave s look like? From what direction did the water come, in which direction did it go? Describe any sounds or noise associated with the tsunami waves--before the arrival? What changes in the land surface did the tsunami make?

Places where there was erosion? Damage due to the tsunami? Casualties: number of deaths, number of missing, number of serious injuries, number of minor injuries. House damage due to tsunami : number swept away, number totally destroyed, number partially destroyed, number flooded. Damage to cars, ships, port facilities, roads, agricultural fields, etc. Area inundated by tsunami? Indicate physical points e.

Had they received any education? Experience of or knowledge of previous events? How did they escape? Where there obstacles? Has sea level changed since the event s? Rocks or coral reefs emerged? By how much? Areas now submerged? Names of other eyewitnesses? In particular, names of others who may have seen events from different perspectives e.

Knowledge of people who took photographs, videos, etc.? Knowledge of others who have collected interviews, data? What did the sea surface look like? How did the boat behave? Did you note any other phenomena? Have you experienced any other events like this in your lifetime? Do you know of stories or legends of such events that have been. Addressed in Agenda Item 4.

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