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You must have all words in the correct. Bible Memory Verse: Matthew b With man this is impossible, but with God all things are possible. Making Inferences Picture 2 Sue surprised her friend with a gift. Making Inferences Picture 3 Angela isn. During Lent and Easter, we remember and. Bible Time for. The people Write it down By the water Who will make it? No way A number of people One or two How long.

Mary was born in and was one of. If you are reading this, then more than likely you are embarking on a week-long adventure serving our Lord and Savior along the U. Cambridge English Readers Hotel Operations Partner Good evening everyone. Thanks so much for taking time out of your busy lives to celebrate with us. Because after all the time and experiences we ve had getting our beautiful Inn. How are you? You re welcome. Oh, no. You mustn t help him. I ll ask him. Why did you finish the report?

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Colleges and churches seem to be in every corner,. II Kings Article I Legislative Branch 1. The legislative branch is divided into two parts or two houses which are. For questions 1 5, match the correct letter A H. You do not have to pay extra. And one of. If yes schedule the Live Presentation Call. Each one starts with a capital letter.

Look at the way each word is spelled. Each word ends in day. Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday. Junior Soldiers Unit 4 : Lesson 8 One body: many parts! The missiles had been placed to protect. Objectives for Rotation See Bible Background. Objectives for Games. I am very excited. All I know about the Arctic is that it has lots of ice and is very cold. Here are some of the.

The survivors brought. Select Pulpit Nominating Committee A. BCO B. The Committee 1. Size and make-up 2. Qualifications C. Members commit to making meetings a priority II. Organize Committee. There is so much to learn about it! Be sure to adjust the lesson to relate to the. Create your own Home Front diary for the Second World War Use the documents and photographs in our Home Front website as evidence to help you write a diary about how your life was affected by the Second.

You will get to teach about the first disciples and how He told them He. Use the glossary to help you. Mark T or F. After taking questions, we're going to begin the slide presentation. Before beginning the. Theodore Roosevelt what has especially directed the attention of the friends of peace is President Roosevelt's happy role in bringing to an end the bloody war recently waged between two of the world's.

We are dedicated to providing the best quality products at a reasonable. Use black or blue ink only and print legibly when completing this. It is difficult to definitively say when your Soldier will graduate that far in advance. B1 certification March B1 certification March Reading and Writing You have 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete both parts. Please keep your eyes on your exam only.

Copying or cheating will result. But, it s more than just a story about the world s first floating zoo Noah and his family 8 souls in. Cloudy and cold. On Saturday morning. On Sunday morning. A red hat and a white bag. A red bag and a white hat. Cloudy and warm. On Saturday afternoon. On Sunday afternoon. A blue bag. Revised Sept. Note to leaders Our focus this week will.

It is there that Jesus prayed on the night before. We should use them to glorify Him. Key Verse: God s gifts of grace come in many forms. She became someone who helped change our country. She was part of history, just like generals and presidents are part of history.

They re leaders,. The ideal level is neither too easy nor too difficult. It should challenge the student without being frustrating. Tithe to tithe is to share to tithe is to care Dear Student, As Orthodox Christians, we care about our faith and our church. One way. Log in Registration. Search for. Size: px. Start display at page:. Ethan Ferguson 3 years ago Views:. View more. Similar documents. Fry Phrases Set 1. No way A number of people One or two How More information. More information. For Questions 1 5 mark the correct letter A H on your More information.

Ordinary Moments of Grace Ordinary Moments of Grace To everything there is a time and a season for every purpose under heaven. A time to laugh and a time to More information. Women More information. You must have all words in the correct More information. Objective: God is all Powerful! Making Inferences Picture 3 Angela isn More information. During Lent and Easter, we remember and More information. Bible Time for More information. No way A number of people One or two How long More information.

Thurlow, C. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Urry, J. The tourist gaze. Under the weight of new fields of research — cultural studies and cultural history, for example — culture has replaced, in many lines of thought and discourse, notions like civilization or society Burke In this context, the task of defining cultural tourism may seem daunting, since it targets a wide array of domains and subdomains.

Heritage appears as a carrier of historical value from the past, of the cultural tradition of a community, while tourism is a modern concept, part of the modern consciousness, implying industry, services, markets, and suppliers, among other things. An association between heritage and tourism may be interpreted as a debate between tradition and modernity or between high culture and consumerism.

Indeed, among the oldest purposes of travel, there is the need for education, aesthetic satisfaction and knowledge, together with those of the religious pilgrimage. The 19th c. However, in the past two or three decades, a democratization of tourism in general has taken place, with the democratization of mobility in the first place, but also with the democratization of the experiences undergone by world tourists. Secondly, cultural tourism today differs from its 19th c.

This engenders several further stances. Nowadays, we are in constant contact with other cultures, able to experience and appreciate both their uniqueness and their shared values and similarities. This sheds light on the realities of tourism, whose roots can be identified in the geopolitics of the mid 19th c. Each nation, when promoting cultural tourism as a source of revenue, draws upon cultural capital to legitimize itself as a territorial entity.

The products of cultural tourism worldwide are national, with regional and subregional constituent parts, now with the growing interest in regionalism in the metanarratives of international tourism policies. In other words, cultural products generate associations and meanings that are influenced by the cultural backgrounds of the potential tourist. The democratization of cultural tourism has reached both consumers and the sites.

The Western context, favouring sensibilities regarding the romantic, beautiful, educational, and moral value of sites, is dwindling. Many cities, regions and communities have moved, in the past several decades, from being economies of production to being economies of symbolic cultural consumption industrial and postindustrial sites are good examples here. This international strategy has had several effects. Some destinations have been prioritized over others, while the development options for some communities have been temporarily closed off.

At the same time, the globalization of heritage has manifested itself in the creation of an international body, World Heritage List, a program used by UNESCO Smith to guarantee a more inclusive approach to the designation of sites focusing on their historical and cultural in the newer sense, occasioned by disciplines such as cultural studies today rather than aesthetic value.

The reasons for promoting one attraction at the expense of another can be varied: economic, political, social, or prestige Boniface Consequently, a common phenomenon is that of the uneven distribution of cultural tourism: - Many attractions suffer from visitor overload while others are visited to capacity or less; - There are cultural items intended to attract visitors, yet, they are not fulfilling that role, whereas, in many parts of the world, cultural tourism is only budding timidly.

Other such cases include situations in which one part of a site is worn down, while other parts are deserted. Cultural Tourism vs. The attractions attached to the traditional package of heritage tourism include museums, theatrical and musical performances, archaeological sites, displays, handicrafts, religious practices, etc. Consequently, the products designed for the consumption of the cultural tourist are also fluid, multilayered, emerging sometimes from the same raw materials, but bearing variable interpretations.

People come to terms with the past and other groups and communities in different ways, but the development of cultural tourism as an industry requires further acceptance and an open- minded, tolerant interpretation and representation of events and places. Like any heritage site, the cultural object has various needs: conservation and promotion through visitor management of various sorts, such as information, access, infrastructure, and facilities.

The cultural object can attract in various ways: - Its exploited distinctiveness; - The modernity of its presentation, transport and communications; - Repositioning altering and redirecting strategies to attract different market segments ; - Joining and linking as a co-operative activity theming and packages attached to already attractive destinations ; - Good information through promotion Boniface They include packaging and theming through the creation of clusters, outreach as a combination between traditional and interactive methods , association or dropping names , the exploitation of features such as remoteness, uniqueness, otherness, the accentuation of the graphic quality of a site or cultural object with the help of the media and new technologies Boniface They identified five types of cultural tourists whose chosen destination may help researchers have a clearer view of how to take advantage of such niche markets: - The purposeful cultural tourist — culture as their main concern; - The sightseeing cultural tourist — concerned with cultural highlights only; - The casual cultural tourist — not necessarily deeply involved in experiencing culture; - The incidental cultural tourist — superficially involved; - The serendipitous cultural tourist — cultural experience may not have been important; however, when in the destination, the new cultural experience accidentally becomes highly enticing Debes This historical and geographical region is one of great diversity as different nationalities and ethnicities share the land: Romanians, Serbs, Hungarians, Germans, Ukrainians, Slovaks, Bulgarians, Czechs, Croats, and others.

Out of the two counties, the former has the highest potential for leisure tourism development in the Western area of Romania due to natural resources based mainly on the mountainous relief: the Banat Mountains and the Retezat-Godeanu Mountains. The villages are in the Semenic Mountains, founded by German settlers who came from German Bohemia during the 19th c.

We will list some weaknesses and strengths, opportunities and threats in a SWOT analysis that aims to establish the cultural potential of the studied area. The History of Three German Bohemian Villages During the period , the Aulic Council of the Austrian Empire decided to send German settlers to the Semenic Mountains in order to colonize the region which had forests to be exploited.

In , the Socec Annuary of the Great Romania Melbert published in Bucharest recorded the number of people living in the three villages and some of the names of the more influential persons in the villages, such as the teacher, the vicar, the merchant, the publicans, and, in one case, the doctor. Thus, there were 1, persons The isolated life they used to lead ended abruptly as they were forced to leave their houses and move to locations known only by the communist authorities.

As a consequence, when the German and the Austrian government expressed their willingness to pay good money to the Romanian government for the repatriation of Germans in the s, the German population from the villages and cities of the Banat region started to decrease.

They sold their houses and their goods and moved to Germany, Austria, or other countries around the globe. However, this was not the case of Lindenfeld, which was confronted with a different kind of exodus — from the village to the big city. The refusal of local authorities to build a proper road to link Lindenfeld to the cities, where most of the inhabitants were forced to commute in order to work in factories, condemned the village to a slow but certain extinction. In the s, the last German inhabitant of Lindenfeld died.

At the moment, the village is deserted, and vegetation has almost entirely covered it. The beginning of the 21st c. Although some historians Rusnac b of the Banat region claim that the history of German Bohemians in Banat began in and ended in , we argue that cultural tourism provides the opportunity to maintain cultural traditions through well-determined connections among local authorities, inhabitants of the villages and the emigrants and their children, who are enthusiastic about sharing memories and customs.

Germans from other regions have also purchased properties in the area, along with members of other ethnic groups, which led to the creation of a new type of settlers: more hospitable and open to other communities, willing to recover and preserve traditions although not necessarily their own , memory and the environment and, at the same time, ready to learn from the past. The first is destined death, the second the need, the third takes the bread — one could understand that economic prosperity comes after more generations of settlers, so a positive view of the future includes the development of several types of tourism in these villages.

The History of Tourism in the German Bohemian Villages of Romania Rusnac a and Hromadka bring proofs of the early days of tourism in the Semenic Mountains, which began around According to a legend, its waters have healing powers: if a child is sick, his health will improve, if a woman has sinned, the waters will wash away her sins Birou The quietness of the place also recommends it for health benefits. In winter, there were ski, sleigh and sledge races. There are tourist accounts describing the rooms as simple, traditional and clean, providing for the needs of travellers.

He also notes the altitude m and the fact that it is inhabited by 1, Germans who can speak some Romanian. Oancea announces a rise in the number of tourists in the s due to the fact that both villages are remarkably close to the road and to the three streams of water flowing in the area.

One must remember that, although they speak dialects of the same language and they are Catholics, there are significant differences between the Germans from Bohemia and the Germans from other parts of present Austria or Germany as far as traditions are concerned.

In the s, the National Organisation for Tourism O. Private initiatives such as that of Paul Weinfurter are acknowledged and eventually accepted by communist officials and camps for school children are set in the two villages. Unfortunately, this was not the case of Lindenfeld, which seemed condemned from the very beginning. There were various reasons for its disappearance: the main one was the lack of a proper road, as we have already stated.

However, city people who had bought the houses were interested in preserving them in good shape and still use them as holiday homes. Famous jazz singers have been gathering for jam sessions and concerts ever since, attracting a growing number of tourists.

The advertising campaigns have been very expensive for the last couple of years, as many celebrities have endorsed this festival, transforming it into a commercial success. If, at first, the audience consisted of no more than a hundred people, and no entrance fee was required, in , there were almost 6, visitors in just 3 days, and the entrance fee reached 15 Euros. With such a large number of tourists searching for accommodation at the same time, both villages suffer from visitor overload during the summer months.

For the rest of the year, the villages seem nearly deserted, as there are a few house owners and inn keepers who populate the areas. Another significant cultural event took place in August Ever since then, each summer witnesses such a resurrection. Even the fire department joins the festivities, playing along the local orchestra of musicians. On Sunday, the church is full of worshippers and visitors, just like in the old days of the settlement.

Women in traditional costumes try to braid their hair regardless of how short it may be. Before the sermon, men join the group of women, remembering together the Kirchweih, the religious celebration that used to gather inhabitants from all the three villages.

Songs, speeches, theatre plays, dances, they all remind of the good old days. Unfortunately, on Monday, they have to return to their new homes, to Germany and Austria, taking back their customs and traditions, yet leaving behind a clear trace of what used to be the German-Bohemian way of life. It is a journey into a forgotten past that has arisen from a moral obligation to ancestors Brebu Nou This type of event has taken place every year since , although not on such a large scale.

What has changed is that they are guests in the houses built by their forerunners. Nevertheless, it is a clear example of how open-minded communities may be inviting tourists to enjoy cultural experiences although the infrastructure does not necessarily sustain tourist overload.

Sites that are no longer cultural objectives such as Lindenfeld may be used for hunting and adventure tourism, or other forms of niche tourism. Following the publication of a novel named Lindenfeld by the Romanian author Morar , there was heavy media coverage about the deserted area and several groups of tourists do visit the area, fascinated either by the story of the novel or the legends presented by the press.

As a result, the Romanian villages around Lindenfeld witness an increase in the number of visitors although the infrastructure has not been improved. This is an example of how cultural tourism can be made to flourish due to literary itineraries. Though a popular form of tourism during the communist years, it has decreased since because of the public perception that it was used mainly for political propaganda.

Nowadays, it is a form of tourism successfully practiced in countries with strong literary traditions. As any other form of tourism, intercultural tourism provides opportunities and threats that have to be taken into consideration. The SWOT analysis in Table underlines positive and negative aspects of cultural tourism in the analysed region. Opportunities Threats High potential of tourism Insufficient investment in development due to an increase in marketing and advertising; demand and offer; Absence of a Tourist-Oriented Clusters of tour-operators and Directional Signage Program; travel agencies; Migration of local people.

Implication of government and local authorities; Development of private entrepreneurship. In this sense, all tourism is cultural in a global world where culture, in a wide sense, provides a set of material and symbolic resources abundant in supply and highly mobile. As Cipriana Sava suggests , A sustainable development of tourism can be applied to all types and forms of tourism even though there is a tendency to consider sustainable only ecotourism.

Within the sustainable development, an important role is played by culture and its constitutive elements like linguistic diversity, empirical and theoretical knowledge, beliefs, artistic, literary, scientific creations, inventions, the entire material and immaterial heritage. Cultural sustainability intends to maintain local and regional culture unaltered and valorised, as well as to support its development.

Culture is the sum of material and spiritual values created by the human kind along times, and it differs from region to region, and from people to people. UNESCO sees in culture the distinct characteristics of a society or social group in spiritual, material, intellectual or emotional terms. One may state that culture is a heritage that transmits through the help specific communication codes such as gestures or words, writing and the arts, the media, the interactive media.

The case study presented above indicates that the potential of cultural tourism in areas which are still developing a tradition in this area is priceless. Due to its versatile nature, a culture of cultural tourism in such areas can contribute substantially to the reconversion of the status, value and impact of a region. References Banat Village List W. Birou, V. Boniface, Priscilla.

Managing Quality Cultural Tourism. Routledge: London and New York. Burke, P. What is Cultural Studies? Cambridge: Polity. Debes, T. Genealogy Net. Leben zwischen Gestern und Heute. Volksmusik in Bayern 20 1. Hromadka, G. Oradea: Imprimeria de Vest. Infos zu Weidenthal. McKercher, B. Cultural tourism: The partnership between tourism and cultural heritage management.

New York: The Haworth Press. Melbert, N. Morar, I. Oancea, Z. Poria, Y. The Case of Heritage Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 30 1 : Rusnac, M. Vechile familii din Weidenthal. Cultural Tourism: An Opportunity for Timisoara. Drobeta-Turnu Severin: University Centre. Smith, Melanie K.

Issues in Cultural Tourism Studies. London — New York: Routledge. The background information comes from both printed and online sources as shown in the References below. Material and Method Taking into account the fact that language dictionaries capture linguistic evolutions and make them into norms, we thought it only natural to follow the trend and register the definitions provided online by different sites more or less involved in cultural tourism, record that we compared with definitions supplied by the literature in the field of cultural tourism.

Online: memory. Trusted e-Business Architects. Knowledge Glossary. Princeton University, WordNet. A lexical database for English. The shift to an existentialist view reframes authenticity in terms of the tourists rather than the cultures he or she encounters while touring. While this view retains some ties to the original concept, it largely represents a break in a new direction.

In the context of living cultural practices, the concept of authenticity responds to the evolution of the traditional practice. International Cultural Tourism Charter. The Jargon of Authenticity. Translated by K. Evanston: Northwestern University Press. Arrunnapaporn, Apinya.

Extreme Heritage. Ashley-Smith, J. Definitions of Damage. University of Texas at Austin, Managing e-mail as Records. Authenticity philosophy. Authenticity re-enactment. The Flag Research Centre. Terms of Business. Durante, Luciana. Reliability and Authenticity: The Concepts and their Implications. Archivaria Glossary — Zaire. Library of Congress. Federal Research Division.

Country Studies. Kelner, S. Narrative Construction of Authenticity in Pilgrimage Touring. Occasional Paper for the World Heritage Convention. Tourism 55 3 : Niskasaari, Kari. Towards a socio-culturally sustainable definition of authenticity.

Re-thinking the Spirit of Place. Quebec, Canada, September 29 — October 4, Notermans, S. Food Authenticity and Traceability. Ensuring the Safety of Animal Feed. Lees Ed. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Ltd. Pelzer-Montada, Ruth. Authenticity in Printmaking — A Red Herring? Helsinki, Finland. Sathe, N. Doctoral Thesis. The Ohio State University. Smith, Abby. Washington, DC. Council on Library and Information Resources. Steiner, Carol J. Understanding Existential Authenticity. Annals of Tourism Research 33 2 : Stevenson, L.

European Centre for the Experience Economy. Taylor, Ch. The Ethics of Authenticity. It is not uncommon to find many student populations throughout the world education in trilingual environments. The second factor is the importance the central government attributes to the additional language as a characteristic of a local social and ethnic group of the population.

This policy has not changed since the founding of the state, with Hebrew still perceived as a metaphor of the security of the nation. This policy exacerbates the process of alienation of those living at the periphery of the society, in open denial of our understanding of the society as a multicultural society.

As part of the Arab sector, the Bedouin students in Israel, from the very beginning of their basic training, are required to learn three languages: classic Arabic L1 , Hebrew L2 and English FL ; they are expected to pass their Matriculation examinations in all three languages at the end of their high school studies. In this research, we aim at examining how the students in the research group 10th graders learning in Negev Bedouin schools, preparing for their Matriculation examinations in each of the three languages understand the functions and authority of the English language, and how they perceive the impact this language would have on their social, academic and professional future.

Sara Zamir, Sara Hauptman and Rachel Tal The Value of Trilingual Environment The Hebrew-Arabic-English trilingual environment has different goals for each one of the languages taken separately, as well as more general goals linked to the trilingual system in its entirety. Issues regarding national identity are also highly influential in the context of multi-lingualism stemming from transitions from one culture to another or from contact between a minority culture and the dominant culture, as the research shows.

In the latter situation, both the language of origin and the dominant language are living and usable languages; and 4 loss of identity expressed by inconsistency and linguistic confusion. The mother tongue is usually acquired through integrative motivation. Instrumental motivation, on the other hand, stems from the possibility of benefiting from the language in terms of advancing in a career or academic studies.

Here, a student may not necessarily identify with the speakers of the language he studies. Nevertheless, it must be assumed that Arabic speakers spend much time and effort to achieve native-like proficiency in Hebrew in order to avoid being socially marginalized and in order to blend in the mainstream of society regardless of how they may think about the dominant culture. This is the guiding principle for learning every one of the languages studied in this environment.

Dialogue helps the individual reveal his human side or his subconscious, and so get closer to it. They claim that the difference between learning two languages and three languages is not only quantitative, but also qualitative. The influence of the three languages on each other is not linear, but multilinear and active since the process engenders interaction among various factors such as linguistic, personal, and cultural factors affecting each other and the whole process.

Nevertheless, teaching English during the British Mandate authorities in Israel then Palestine faced serious problems since it was perceived by the Israeli students as the language of the occupier. In the curriculum, the traditional four-skill division was replaced by what was believed to be more appropriate in the changing circumstances. The four domains of English language learning were now considered to be social interaction, access to information, presentation, and a way to a more open multilingual policy.

Moreover, students applied the HOTS they learned to other areas of education as well as to aspects of their own lives. The Bedouin Community in the Negev The Bedouin community in the Negev is defined as Arab nomad living by rearing livestock in the deserts of southern Israel and counts several tribes that are among the minority population of native Arabs who remained in Israel after the War of Independence Abu-Saad , , The Bedouin community in Israel is a culture apart from the mainstream Israeli society.

Being a regular society, outsiders in the country, the Bedouins have kept themselves more separated than other cultures, perhaps in order to maintain their identity. As a society in transition from a traditional nomadic way of life to integration into the dominant modern Western life of Israel, the Bedouins are still a disadvantaged minority socially, economically and educationally Kedar Under the Compulsory Education Law, compulsory education was extended to the Bedouin sector, leading to a massive increase in literacy levels.

Schools are under the supervision of the Ministry of Education and belong to the Arab sector in which the language of instruction is Arabic. According to the Ministry of Education, statistics drop-out rates are unusually high among Negev Bedouin. The Negev Bedouin schools faced several difficulties that kept them from improving their education services. First, they were short on staff positions and equipment, especially in the tribal settlements.

The schools in these settlements had almost no resources and teaching aids, scanty budgets, few facilities, and inadequate buildings and furnishings. Services and facilities such as audiovisual aids, computers, laboratories, and sports equipment were sometimes unavailable. Most of these Bedouin schools are located in structures that have limited classroom and office space and lack running water and electricity.

Methodology The aim. This paper has intended to examine how the Bedouin students, experiencing a trilingual literacy, relate to the English language. Description of the Research The research group. The group we studied comprised one hundred and ninety-one 10th grade students 98 girls and 93 boys from four high schools belonging to the Bedouin sector in the southern of Israel.

All the students of the research belong to the trilingual literacy program. The students of the research group filled out open-ended and closed questionnaires analyzing how they related to each one of the languages studied in the trilingual literacy program- including and compared to English. Research tools. Research tools for determining how students related to the English language in comparison to the other languages taught at school are as follows: 1.

Open-ended questionnaire, including the following questions: - Why is it important for a student to learn Arabic? Closed questionnaire, including eight utterances about the languages and how the students related to the method of teaching in the trilingual literacy program, using the Likert scale graded from one to three: mostly correct, sometimes correct, mostly incorrect.

This section lays out the findings regarding the way the research group related to each one of the three languages as the language of instruction at school. Table describes how the students relate to each language and to the trilingual environment in general open-ended questionnaire. The reasons for learning English are instrumental. English is essential as the universal language and the language of tourism.

On the other hand, a relatively high percentage of students claimed that there was no need to study this language category 2. That is to say, young people whose mother tongue is Arabic travel to Arab countries, can recognize an integrative connection to the Arab world, which is not necessarily the case in learning English for the purpose of travelling to English-speaking countries.

Additionally, stereotypes and prejudices regarding a particular language play a vital role in language acquisition and may even hinder the acquisition of that language Hamarshy The relatively high grade the students gave to their fondness for the Arabic language category 1 , to their definition of success in the language category 3 , their willingness to continue studying the language category 13 was quite obvious.

This principle was mentioned regarding Hebrew only, and not other languages. Since, in Israeli society, the use of Arabic is not widespread in day to day business and its use is limited, a resident of Israel must speak Hebrew and the inhabitant of the global village must speak English. It does not provide even one TV channel in Arabic; one of the Broadcasting Authority channels 33 broadcasts only a handful of programs for Arabic speakers Lustigman English is considered as instrumental, providing the solution for communicating throughout the world wherever one might be travelling, whether for tourism for pleasure, or overseas work or studies, for retrieving information from the web and the media suited to our interests in the additional information channels.

In these situations, the individual, and especially a child or a teenager, tends to turn to concrete contact figures or to cultural representations, keeping in touch with them either physically or symbolically. This interaction, at its optimum, provides a person with a basic understanding of attachment security. While the study of Arabic can be attributed to both expanded integrative motivation accompanied by instrumental motivation, the study of Hebrew and English should be attributed mainly to instrumental motivation accompanied to some extent by integrative motivation.

This identification engenders in the learners the desire to be identified as part of this group. Towards an understanding of minority education in Israel: The case of the Bedouin Arabs of the Negev. Comparative Education 27 2 : Bedouin Arab education in the context of radical social change: What is the future?

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Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters. Ben-David, J. The Bedouins in Israel. Jerusalem: The institute of exploring Israel. Beem Sorace, G. The English Journal 87 3 : Ben-David, Y. The Bedouin in Israel, The virtual library. Berry, J. Immigration, acculturation and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review 46 1 : Bowlby, J. Attachment and loss: Retrospect and prospect.

American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 52 4 : Bravick, J. The development, implementation and evaluation of an instructual model to increase comprehension through written structural response to text. Major research project for the Ed. A: Nova University. Buber, M. The Knowledge of Man. New York: Harper Books. Calderon, M. Effects of bilingual cooperative integrated reading and composition on students making transition from Spanish to English reading.

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Australian Journal of Language and Literacy 23 3 : Firth, A. Journal of Pragmatics Flower, L. A cognitive process theory of writing. College composition and communication Gardner, R. Attitudes and Motivation in Second- Language Learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Gibbons, J. Operationalizing academic language proficiency in bilingualism research. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural development Globman, R.

The Bedouin Community in the Negev. Goldman, A. Learning Hebrew by the Arab citizens in Israel. Halliday, M. Language, context and text: Aspects of language in a social-semiotic perspective. Geelong, Victoria: Deakin University Press. Hauptman, S. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 29 3 : Herdina, P. The dynamics of third language acquisition. Kedar, M. Analysis between the rock and the hard place.

Jerusalem Post, Oct. Krashen, S. Why bilingual education? Eric ED Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford: Pergamon. Levins, A. The humanism of the other. Jerusalem: Bialick Institute. Lustigman, R. Teaching Arabic in Hebrew schools in Israel.

Beer- Sheba: Hagar. McLaughlin, B. The relationship between first and second language: Language proficiency and language aptitude. Natanzon, Y. Comprehensive plan for tending Issues of Bedouins in the Negev. Nevo, N. The Hebrew Language in the Globalism Age. Jerusalem: Magnes. Nissim-Amitay F. Language acquisition in within multicultural and multi-linguistic context.

Petroman, C. Islamic Tourism: What Kind of tourism? Palicica Eds. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars. Plant, R. Hegel: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell. Rajuan, M. Pen Pal letters of peace. Aharoni Eds. Achva College: Megamot 8: Skutnabb-Kangas, T. Linguistic genocide in education-or worldwide diversity and human rights? Sonech, S. The linguistics issue in the new Arabic Literature. Tel- Avia: Tel-Aviv University.

Spolsky, B. The languages of Israel: Policy, ideology and practice. The new linguistic policy of Israel: Changes in Education. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University. Suan, D. Arabic — why? Education and its surroundings Tzelmier, M. The contradicting logics of literacy. Contemplating on Education B 2. Haifa: Haifa University. Vilbay, Y. Children from the Bedouin sector in the Negev. Vorgan, Y. The Educational system in the Bedouin sector in the Negev.

Zamir, S. From a mobilized state to a state for all its citizens. Hed Hachinuch 9: From the very beginning, according to its Editor-in-chief, A. Shakiry, this magazine was meant to be: - A magazine specialising in Islamic Tourism and concerned with the tracking and promoting of the trends in tourism throughout the Muslim world; - A quarterly specialist magazine; - The first tourism magazine of its kind — concentrating exclusively on Arab and Islamic countries.

The aims of the magazine were as following: - To interpret the meanings and originality of Islamic heritage; - To market a new type of commodity for which there is an urgent need; - To open up new and exciting opportunities for growth, and not to replace existing tourist interest in Islamic areas; - To promote and develop Islamic Tourism; - To underline the importance of Islamic Tourism.

In fact, the founder of the magazine, A. Shakiry, considers there are a number of needs that Islamic Tourism should meet to satisfy primarily the Muslim segment of tourists from all over the world: 1. The need for our people to move, encounter and communicate in order to know each other, to strengthen love and friendship as the basis for commercial, economic and cultural exchange.

Despite attacks from other cultures, the root of spiritual belief between Arab and Muslim peoples has remained steadfast. This is particularly evident in the Muslim communities living outside their countries of origin. Islamic landmarks are increasing day by day worldwide. New mosques and edifices will be our legacy for the future and the basis of a renewal of existing cultural landmarks.

Therefore, we have to invite other nations in and benefit from their archaeological and technological achievements. In addition to providing profits, Islamic Tourism will revive confidence in people and affirm their belief in their own thoughts and capabilities. This would include the recitation of religious corals and glorifications on religious celebrations and other occasions. It will revive the traditional Islamic and cultural crafts in the form of souvenirs for tourists.

It will restrict sectarian and national disagreement among Islamic schools of thought and opinion and among people generally. The wealthier will realise the needs of the poorer and give sustenance to imperative legal and moral claims of a Muslim individual towards another. It is possible to include the religious schools, charitable organisations, nursing homes, and so on, within the trips of tourists to have a closer look — and therefore gain a deeper appreciation and understanding of — the activities of Muslims in a given country.

Idem All this raises the following questions: - Where could we range Islamic Tourism? Cornelia Petroman and Ioan Petroman - Is it a variety of cultural tourism? A form of ecotourism? Of health tourism?

Of lake tourism? Of recreational tourism? Or of religious tourism? The analysis is an attempt at establishing the share of each of these types of tourism in Islamic Tourism, a novelty for the Christian world. Material and Method In order to answer the questions above, we have analysed the first 24 issues of the Islamic Tourism Magazine — the issues that we consider as the manifesto for the policy of the magazine — focusing mainly on the details allowing us to identify the key features of this supposedly new kind of tourism.

Therefore, other types of tourism should be encouraged and promoted with priority, such as: - Archaeological Tourism. This type of tourism alone cannot be the objective of attracting more tourists and, furthermore, it cannot flourish without other types of tourism, which should be marketed as secondary tourism. This could include excursions, family outings, festivals, school exchanges, vocational trips, and so on. This requires a free-market economy which means the elimination of obstacles to travel, thereby enhancing the economic trade among countries of the region, on the one hand, and with the world on the other.

This should, of course, include economic conventions such as fairs, technical and vocational symposia. The time visitors and tourists spend should be qualitatively utilised by organising trips for them to archaeological and cultural sites.

This is of immense value to Islamic countries for the reasons already mentioned in [this] first issue of the magazine. Religious tourism reveals many perspectives in culture and economy. Exploring and developing religious landmarks and facilities would lead to the rise of tourism within Islamic countries.

The recommendations of Islamic Tourism Magazine in its 1st issue address governments whose interest it is to promote cultural and other types of tourism. Thus, governments had to start internally by: - Beautifying the surrounding areas of tourist sites and providing them with the necessary services.

Promoting the industrial, agricultural, and traditional crafts and popular products by introducing and selling them to tourists. Conclusions Islamic Tourism as defined by A. Shakiry is a new moral dimension in tourism, whose main features are: - A new outlook on life and society; - Attempts to find out about the background of different societies and heritages; - Care for the environment; - Understanding and dialogue between different nations and civilizations; - Values brought to the central stage in an age where consumerism is rife, and everything is available for use and abuse in the most selfish way; - Values generally accepted as high standards of morality and decency for the respect of local beliefs and traditions Islamic Tourism 1.

As for the kind, Islamic Tourism is a balanced combination of some of the most obvious kinds of tourism practiced worldwide — cultural tourism, ecotourism, educational tourism, health tourism, heritage tourism, lake tourism, recreational tourism, and religious tourism — excluding other types of tourism such as dark tourism, disaster tourism, or sex tourism. Islamic Tourism: What Kind of Tourism? Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

The hypothesis of the research was that these apparent borrowings and English formations might suggest some intriguing developments in both form and meaning that might be of value in teaching English to students in tourism services. We have registered thirty-four hotel-related words using two of the first English language dictionaries: The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language and The Online Etymology Dictionary A single hotel-related word has come from Old English into Middle English: inn [possibly 12th c.

French Borrowings. Discussion From the point of view of their formation type, hotel-related words are native words, borrowings, compounds, and derivatives Figure Equivalents of hotel-related words in Contemporary English: 1 - inn; 2 - hotel; 3 - lodging s ; 4 - establishment providing lodging ; 5 - house; 6 - lodging place; 7 - boarding house; 8 - urban motel; 9 - cottage; 10 - furnished rooms; 11 - hostel; 12 - lodging house; 13 - place for lodging; 14 - place of lodging; 15 - place to sleep; 16 - rooming house; 17 - shelter; 18 - sleeping accommodations; 19 - stopping place; 20 - vacation retreat Conclusions Most of the native hotel-related words have come from Old French into Middle English during the Norman rule hostel, lodge, and tavern.

Of its twelve hotel-related borrowings, the English language incorporated seven from French between the 16th and 19th c. The first conclusion we may come to is that French culture and civilization continued to strongly influence the English language after the Norman rule.

This is also supported by the historical data as well as surviving written records of Middle English. Derivation is no longer the main word-enriching mechanism in an area in which composition can better make a difference in the dynamic field of hospitality. References Baker, M.

Lexical Categories. Verbs, Nouns, and Adjectives. Brown, K. Encyclopaedia of Language and Linguistics. Cambridge: University of Cambridge. Chalker, S. Glare, P. Oxford Latin Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hotel Terminology: An Etymological Approach. Neidle, C. Lexical Functional Grammar. New York: Pergamon Press. Plag, I. Word-Formation in English. Sheehan, M. Word Parts Dictionary. Thus, the currently pejorative word toilet for which people prefer such euphemisms as bathroom, loo, lulu, or restroom was originally introduced as a euphemism to replace the pejoratives latrine, lavatory, and privy, ex-euphemisms, in their turn Singh Material and Method We have inventoried all the terms belonging to the lexical field of toilet in some of the most authoritative English-language dictionaries see References.

We then analysed them from a semantic perspective. References Ayto, J. Word Origins. Hendrickson, R. Shipley, J. Dictionary of Word Origins. Singh, Ishtla. The History of English. London: Hodder Education. The hypothesis of the research was that these apparent borrowings and English formations might suggest some intriguing developments in both form and meaning that might be of value in teaching English to students in food services.

We have registered seventy-five restaurant-related words using two of the first English language dictionaries — The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language and The Online Etymology Dictionary Material and Method We analysed these restaurant-related words picked up from The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language from an etymological point of view with the help of the Online Etymology Dictionary to see whether we can draw any conclusions on: when they entered the English language; the source they came from; changes in the form over time, if any; changes in meaning over time, if any.

Native Words All eight English restaurant-related words come from Middle English the English language from about to , which, in their turn, come from: Old English the English language from the middle of the 5th to the beginning of the 12th c. Borrowings The twenty-four borrowings come from a fairly wide range of modern languages such as French 16 , Spanish 4 , Italian 2 , German 1 , and Modern Greek 1.

French borrowings. Of the sixteen restaurant-related French borrowings in English, seven come from Old French the French language from the 9th to the early 16th c. Spanish borrowings. Italian borrowings. German borrowings. Greek borrowings. Formations The largest part forty-three words is that of English formations — compounds, derivatives, abbreviations, back-formations, and onomatopoetic formations.

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